A four-year study has been completed of the effects of Rock and Water delivered to students (age 11-13) at pre-vocational colleges in The Netherlands.
Students at pre-vocational colleges are considered to have a higher propensity for behavioural, social skill and risk-taking problems. The study, in which 1,299 students participated, took place between 2016 and 2020 and was carried out by the University of Utrecht (in the Netherlands).
Results show that students who have had the R&W intervention show better development on multiple outcomes in both the interpersonal domain (aggression) and the intrapersonal domain (psychological well-being, sexual autonomy, internalizing behaviour) and on secondary outcome measures (self-control and emotional regulation), compared to the students who did not receive the R&W intervention.
The outcomes were strongest when a core team of teachers was involved in the implementation of the intervention. You can read further about the Research by visiting http://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/400656
Comparison Study Of Primary School Children Participating In The Intervention Program Rock And Water
Researchers examined the changes in social safety (bullying and being bullied), feelings of competence (self-regulation, global self-esteem, and social acceptance effectiveness), and depressive feelings. (437Kb pdf )
Positive results of scientific research on pre-vocational education (grade 7 and 8)
Comprehensive scientific evaluation of the Rock and Water Programme consistently finds that students (aged 7-14)
- showed decreases in bullying and being bullied,
- increases in self-esteem, self-regulation and social interaction
- decreased feelings of depression.
- show better development on multiple outcomes in both the interpersonal domain (aggression) and the intrapersonal domain (psychological well-being, sexual autonomy, internalizing behaviour) and on secondary outcome measures (self-control and emotion regulation), compared to the students who did not receive the R&W intervention
Research by Rutgers WPF and the Trimbos Institute (peer reviewed and published in the international Journal of Sexual Aggression, April 2015) has shown that the psychophysical resilience programme Rock and Water helps to boost self-confidence, curb impulsive behaviour and deter sexually transgressive behaviour in boys.
Effects Of Rock And Water – An Intervention To Prevent Sexual Aggression
The Trimbos Institute’s findings into the positive impact the Rock and Water program can have on young men’s attitudes and behaviours regarding sexual behaviour and aggression. (237Kb pdf )
Families & Communities, South Australian Government – Rock And Water Program
Psychologists Ivan Raymond and Carole Simpson conducted an evaluation of the Rock and Water program for young people living in the congregate care system of South Australia. (232Kb pdf )
Promoting Positive Youth Development Through School-Based Social And Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta-Analysis Of Follow-Up Effects
Though Rock and Water is not included in this intervention analysis as the majority were US based programmes, this summary explains the positive and long lasting effects of school-based SEL interventions assessed six months to 18 years after their completion. (317Kb pdf )
Elizabeth Vale Rock And Water Program – Program Summary And Qualitative Evaluation
A whole school approach to the Rock and Water program was conducted by Connected Self for Newly Arrived Young People who were students of Elizabeth Vale Primary School. The evaluation reviews the program, summarises the qualitative evaluation and provides recommendations for future programming. The evaluation has had contributions from Tim Brenton (program facilitator), Andrew Cenuich (program reviewer) and Ivan Raymond (psychologist). (391Kb pdf)
An Action Research Project Examining Anger And Aggression With Rural Adolescent Males Participating In The Rock And Water Program
The Rock and Water Program (RWP) was used as a means of contacting 187 rural adolescent males from four schools on the north coast of New South Wales Australia in order to explore their views relating to anger and aggression as well as their perception of the RWP.
- Changes in social safety, feelings of competence, and depressive feelings of primary school children who have participated in the intervention program Rock and Water: A comparison study by Ellen Reitz, Esther Mertens, Monique van Londen, Maja Deković (425 Kb pdf)
- An Intervention to Prevent Sexual Aggression
by Ireen de Graaf, Stans de Haas, Miriam Zaagsma & Ciel Wijsen (2015) (151 Kb pdf)